BY Özlem GÜZEL, Associate Dr. Özlem GÜZEL

Akdeniz University, Tourism Faculty along with

Mustafa GÜLMEZ



Sustainable tourism is an approach that brings together practices that ensure the protection and development of their attractiveness while using environmental, cultural and natural resources subject to tourism.

The sector practitioners and the academic community should take the lead in defining and disseminating the applications that constitute the content of this approach.

Based on this point, in this study, the sustainable tourism-themed, theoretical and applied studies, principles and techniques in the last quarter century, i.e. the period from the 1990s to the present, have been examined.

In the light of the findings obtained, it has been observed that the number of sustainable themed academic studies has been increasing over the years and that the topics of economic continuity, local welfare, environmental naturalness, physical integrity and cultural wealth are intense in terms of the twelve goals of sustainable tourism. On the other hand, studies pointing to local control, social welfare, employment quality, social equality, visitor satisfaction, biodiversity and resource efficiency were found to be insufficient.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Tourism, Literature Research.


While it gained its existence in the sustainable environment in the 1970s, this laterality gained popularity in development and tourism studies since the 1980s (Liu, 2003; Berno & Bricker, 2001). However, Jayawardena (2003) and Liu (2003) emphasize that their research is weak and inadequate. Liu (2003) states that in the tourism literature research that emerged, mixed concepts, wrong measurements and inadequacies led to the discussion. Jayawardena (2003) emphasizes that practitioners should develop viable practical models of expectations from academics. Creating a business model of future tourism research, good practice examples, analyzing the benefits of good practices, relationships between customer and service providers, understanding tourism perceptions and social value, reflections of not taking advantage of green opportunities, environmental product measurement, and joint research that brings academies together, success stories. It suggests sharing with the masses, case studies and success stories as part of the training. Marshall and Toffel (2005) emphasize that a clear definition of knowing cannot be made and that the reason for this is that it is a continuity and continuity process. Similarly, Padin and Svensson (2013) stated that the sequence is planned to be defined not as a concept or structure, but as a unit, the intended tourism emergence and repetition. Undoubtedly, useful researches are useful in the renewal and definition of the process. Scientific research, understanding of the intrinsic relationships between tourism, local communities and the environment, understanding the value and roles of stakeholders, placing destinations on the foundations of providing polarization modeling, understanding the realization of the realization beyond the protection of the environment, reading in the economic, environmental, socio-values ​​section of tourism It is of critical importance in examining the influence of tourists and emphasizing the consumer identity of tourists. In this context, it is thought that these issues, which focus on the literature research, will be important in terms of the place where the subject is concentrated and the missing part between years.

Sustainable Tourism

One of the most important responsible for the damage to the environment and nature is the tourism sector (Güzel, 2012; Papatya et al., 2011; Demir & Çevirgen, 2006; Meydan, 1998). Emphasizing the existence of the ecological crisis as one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse created by the green / global capitalist system approaching its zero point, Daisy and others have emphasized the fact that nature is transformed into an object of consumption with the realization that the ecological crisis creates the sustainable environmental paradox and tourism activities endanger their future. (2011: 223). The sustainable tourism approach, popular with the Brundtland report in the 1980s, is an approach that aims to ensure the development and permanence of the sector, and to eliminate the negative effects of destinations in terms of environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects in the long term. Sustainability principles are emphasized in the “Global Code of Ethics in Tourism” in the investment reports of the World Tourism Organization (WTO). Within the Global Code of Ethics in Tourism

The third of the 10 principles that include the social, economic, cultural and environmental contents of travel and tourism movements is “tourism as an element of sustainable development” ( As emphasized in Article 3, the tourism sector is the main element of sustainable development and this article has the following contents (

• In the development of tourism, all parties are obliged to protect the natural environment in the perspective of sound, continuous and sustainable economic growth, and future generations should be taken into account in meeting the needs.

• Resource-saving, particularly types of tourism, which prioritize water and energy-saving methods and reduce waste, should be encouraged by national / regional / local public authorities.

• Periods of increased tourist flow such as school holidays should be arranged in a way to reduce the impact of tourism on the environment.

• Tourism infrastructure and activities should be prepared in a way that ensures the conservation of ecosystem, biodiversity and wildlife.

• Nature tourism and eco-tourism should be considered as the basic elements that play a role in the development and enrichment of tourism.

Considering why the World Tourism Organization (WTO) attaches importance to sustainable tourism, it can be pointed out that the tourism enterprises in the sector have insensitive practices, and the local people and tourists are unconscious about the effects of tourism. Concrete examples of this situation can be seen in the sustainable tourism development report published by the World Tourism Organization in 2013. The negative aspects of tourism, which is shown as the most important force of development in the report, are listed as follows:

• Tourism leads to climate change by contributing 5% to existing carbon emissions, mainly with transportation facilities and tourism activities such as accommodation as well as transportation.

• Failure to properly dispose of solid and liquid wastes by tourism enterprises causes local land and water pollution.

• Tourist activities pose problems in some regions.

• Accommodation businesses use non-renewable and valuable resources such as land, water and energy. In some areas, more water is consumed in holiday villages than the local people use.

• Inadequate management of tourism development and inappropriate activities in sensitive areas can damage biodiversity.

• There may be negative impacts on cultural heritage sites where there is insufficient visitor management.

• Tourism can cause negative effects on local communities in regions with unrestricted entry, such as increased crime, sexual exploitation, and the destruction of socio-cultural traditions and values.

• While creating job opportunities, tourism can lead to poor working conditions.

• The sector is sensitive to source markets due to economic performance, economic conditions, natural events and security concerns.

Table1. Literature Research Summary (1990-2016)

2004Tazim B. JamalVirtue Ethics And Sustainable Tourism Pedagogy: Phronesis, Principles And Practice
2005Mehmet Altinay, Kashif HussainSustainable Tourism Development: A Case Study Of North Cyprus
2006Sonja Sibila Lebe, Borut MilfelnerInnovative Organisation Approach To Sustainable Tourism Development İn Rural Areas
2007Robert J. Johnston, Timothy J. TyrrellManagement Exercises And Trainer’s Note İn Sustainable Tourism And Dynamics
2007Ute JamrozyMarketing of Tourism: A Paradigm Shift Toward Sustainability
2007Erick T. ByrdStakeholders İn Sustainable Tourism Development And Their Roles: Applying Stakeholder Theory To Sustainable Tourism Development
2008Mariangela Franch, Umberto Martini, Federica Buffa, Gerardine Parisi4L Tourism (Landscape, Leisure, Learning And Limit): Responding To New Motivations And Expectations of Tourists To Improve The Competitiveness Of Alpine Destinations In A Sustainable Way
2008Chandana Jayawardena, Daniel J. Patterson, Chris Choi, Ryan BrainSustainable Tourism Development In Niagara: Discussions, Theories, Projects And Insights
2009Teresa C.H. Tao, Geoffrey WallTourism As A Sustainable Livelihood Strategy
2010Christof PforrConcepts of Sustainable Development, Sustainable Tourism, And Ecotourism: Definitions, Principles, And Linkages
2010Girish Prayag, Kiran Dookhony- Ramphul, Mootoo MaryevenHotel Development And Tourism Impacts In Mauritius: Hoteliers’ Perspectives On Sustainable Tourism
2010Pamela A. Kennett-Hensel, Julie Z. Sneathand, Paul J. HenselDeveloping Sustainable Tourism: Managers‘ assessment of Jamaica‘s Ten-year master plan
2010Dainora GrundeyManaging Sustainable Tourism in Lithuania: Dream Or reality?
2011D.H.P. Verbeek, A. Bargeman, J.T. MommaasA Sustainable Tourism Mobility Passage
2011Ming Zhao, Le Wang, Qian Fu, Yongxiang Wang, Dongwei ZhangPromoting Living Space Protection While Ensuring Sustainable Tourism In Yuhu Village, Lijiang City
2011Kirk S. BowmanSustainable Tourism Certification And State Capacity: Keep it Local, Simple, Andfuzzy
2011Robert S. Bristow Wen, Tsann Yang Mei, Tsen LuSustainable Medical Tourism in Costa Rica
2012Bill Bramwell, Bernard LaneTowards innovation in sustainable tourism research
2012Carmen PadinA Sustainable Tourism Planning Model: Components And Relationships
2012Heather J. Gibson, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Sung Jin KangSmall-Scale Event Sport Tourism: A Case Study in Sustainable Tourism
2012Suzanne de la BarreWilderness And Cultural Tour Guides, Place Identity And Sustainable Tourism iİn Remote Areas
2012Daniel ScottWhy Sustainable Tourism Must Address Climate Change
2012James E. Stoddard, Carol E. Pollard, Michael R. EvansThe Triple Bottom Line: A Framework for Sustainable Tourism Development
2012Ester M. Pereir, Reidar J. MykletunGuides as Contributors to Sustainable Tourism. A Case Study from the Amazon
2013Yulan Y. YuanAdding Environmental Sustainability To The Management Of Event Tourism
2013Dagmar Lund- Durlacher, Frederic DimancheMobilities And Sustainable Tourism: An Introduction
2013Carmen Padin, Göran SvenssonA multi-layer matrix model of sustainable tourism
2013Gianna Moscardoa, Elena Konovalova, Laurie Murphya, Nancy McGeheebMobilities, Community Well- Being And Sustainable Tourism
2014Wided Batat and, Sonja PrentovicTowards Viral Systems Thinking: A Cross-Culturalstudy Of Sustainable Tourismads
2014Mehmet Behzat EkinciThe Cittaslow Philosophy in The Context Of Sustainable Tourism Development; The Case Of Turkey,
2014Emil Juvan, Sara DolnicarThe Attitude–Behaviour Gap in Sustainable Tourism
2014Anna Torres- Delgado, Francesc López PalomequeMeasuring Sustainable Tourism At The Municipal Level
2015Bill Bramwell,Theoretical Activity In Sustainable Tourism Research
2015Marina Farr Michelle Esparon, Natalie Stoeckl, Silva LarsonThe Significance of Environmental Values For Destination Competitiveness And Sustainable Tourism Strategy Making: Insights From Australia‘s Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area
2015JoanI Liopoulou – Georgudaki, Athanasios Kalogeras, Panagiotis Konstantinopoulo s, Christos TheodoropoulosSustainable Tourism Management and Development Of A Greek Coastal municipality
2015Kelly S. Bricker, Jeremy SchultzSustainable Tourism in the USA: a comparative look at the global sustainable tourism criteria
2015Paul Hanna, Katherine Johnson, Paul Stenner, Matt AdamsFoucault, sustainable tourism, and relationships with the environment (human and nonhuman)
2015Sylvine Pickel- ChevalierCan equestrian tourism be a solution for sustainable tourism development in France?
2015Kaewta Muangasame, Bob McKercherThe challenge of implementing sustainable tourism policy: a 360-degree assessment of Thailand’s ―7 Greens sustainable tourism policy
2015R.W. (Bill) Carter, Sokhom Thok, Vicky O‘Rourke, Tristan PearceSustainable tourism and its use as a development strategy in Cambodia: a systematic literatUre review
2015V.     Waligo,             J. Clarke   ,         R. HawkinsEmbedding    stakeholders in sustainable tourism strategies
2015Chih-HsingLiu, Jeou- ShyanHorng, Sheng-FangChou, Ying-ChunChen, Yi-Chun Lin, Yu- QianZhu AnEmpirical Examination of the Form of Relationship Between Sustainable Tourism Experiences and Satisfaction
2016Burçin Hatipoglu, Maria D. Alvarez, Bengi ErtunaBarrier to stakeholder involvement in the planning of sustainable tourism: th ecase of the Thrace region in Turkey
2016Adriana Budeanu Graham Miller Gianna Moscardo, Can- Seng OoiSustainable tourism, progress, challenges and opportunities: an introduction.
2016Johan Hultman, Filippa SaweAbsence and presence of social complexity in the marketization of sustainable tourism